A computer is fast electronic device that processes the input data according to the instructions given by the user and programmer and provides the desired information as an input.
The computer evolved as a result of a man’s search for a fast and accurate calculating device. First computer is invented by Charles Babbage and thereafter many kinds of computers have been designed and built during the evolution of modern digital computers. The process of improving is continue and bringing new invention everyday.
Zeroth generation of computers: - The zeroth generation of computers mainly denotes mechanical computers. Charles Baggage made first mechanical computer called ‘Analytic Engine’. Charles Babbage is known as ‘Father of the Computers’.
First Generation Computers: - first generation computers are made by use of vaccum tubes. These computers are faster than mechanical computers. ENIAC was first electronic computer. These computers are very large in size and consume too much power.
Second generation computers: - In this generation of computers vaccum tubes had been replaced by transistors made from silicon. Transistor was smaller in size and generates less heat. They are more reliable than previous ones.
Third generation computers: - In third generation Integrated Circuits (ICs) used in place of transistors. IC is made up of hundred of transistors put on a single chip. It is small in size. It is more reliable than second generation computers. Later it is found that IC’s could be integrated on a single chip using LSI (Large Scale Integration).
Fourth Generation Computers: - Fourth generation computer marks the use of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) in place of IC’s. VLSI allows millions of components to be packed on a single circuit. VLSI leads to development of present personal computers also known as micro computers. Computers we are using now-a-days are fourth generation computers. Only drawback of these computers is that they do not have their own intelligence.
Fifth Generation computers: - Fifth generation computers is still at research and development stage. These computers will use USLI (Ultra Large Scale Integration). Most important feature is artificial intelligence. Fifth generation computers will use intelligent software and helps the computers to know ‘What To Do’ and ‘How To Do’. User interface will be provided in form of speech in natural language.
“Robots” have some features of fifth generation computers.
Much more will also change in future as R & D always on to improve features of computers.
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